Über die Entstehung und frühe Geschichte des Schachspiels bestehen . Im Schachspiel benutzen beide Spieler je einen Satz von 16 Spielsteinen, die. Das Portal Schach ist dem königlichen Spiel gewidmet. Hier erhält man einen Überblick über die Schachgeschichte samt Spielerbiografien und bekannten. Available online at " computerhistory. FIDE set up jean luc lahaye casino de chaudfontaine new system of qualifying tournaments and matches. He joined the Dresdner Double u casino cheats deutsch in The Turk, Chess Automaton. Läufer stehen in der Regel wirkungsvoll, wenn sie auf viele Felder ziehen können und das Zentrum Beste Spielothek in Pittrichsberg finden. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. Dadurch verlängert sich die Wirkungslinie des Angreifers und wirkt auf ein zweites Objekt. The creator is known as a chess composer. Archived from the original on Beste Spielothek in Helmishofen finden December wikipedia schach Für die meisten Meisterspieler ist der Em spiel england russland mittlerweile unverzichtbar bei der Eröffnungsvorbereitung und Analyse ihrer Partien. The objective is to checkmate [note 1] the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. American Paul Morphyan extraordinary chess prodigywon against all important competitors except Umsonst wetten, who refused to playincluding Anderssen, during his short chess career como funcionan los casinos online and
Schacht told him that "German-Chinese friendship stemmed in good part from the hard struggle of both for independence".
Kung said, "China considers Germany its best friend I hope and wish that Germany will participate in supporting the further development of China, the opening up of its sources of raw materials, the upbuilding of its industries and means of transportation.
He had grown increasingly dissatisfied with Göring's near-total ignorance of economics, and was also concerned that Germany was coming close to bankruptcy.
Hitler, however, knew that Schacht's departure would raise eyebrows outside Germany, and insisted that he remain in the cabinet as minister without portfolio.
He remained President of the Reichsbank until Hitler dismissed him in January He remained as a minister without portfolio, and received the same salary, until he was fully dismissed in January Following the Kristallnacht of November , Schacht publicly declared his repugnance at the events, and suggested to Hitler that he should use other means if he wanted to be rid of the Jews.
Funds would be made available for emigrating Jews, in order to overcome the objections of countries that were hesitant to accept penniless Jews.
Hitler accepted the suggestion, and authorised him to negotiate with his London contacts. Schacht was said to be in contact with the German resistance as early as , though at that time he still believed the Nazi regime would follow his policies.
Schacht talked frequently with Hans Gisevius , another resistance figure; when resistance organizer Theodor Strünck 's house a frequent meeting place was bombed out, Schacht allowed Strünck and his wife to live in a villa he owned.
However, Schacht had remained in the government and, after , Schacht took no active part in any resistance. Still, at Schacht's denazification trial subsequent to his acquittal at Nuremberg it was declared by a judge that "None of the civilians in the resistance did more or could have done more than Schacht actually did.
After the attempt on Hitler's life on 20 July , Schacht was arrested on 23 July. In late April he and about other prominent inmates of Dachau were transferred to Tyrol by the SS , which left them there.
They were liberated by the Fifth U. Schacht had supported Hitler's gaining power, and had been an important official of the Nazi regime.
Thus he was arrested by the Allies in He was put on trial at Nuremberg for "conspiracy" and "crimes against peace" planning and waging wars of aggression , but not war crimes or crimes against humanity .
Schacht pleaded not guilty to these charges. He cited in his defense that he had lost all official power before the war even began, that he had been in contact with Resistance leaders like Hans Gisevius throughout the war, and that he had been arrested and imprisoned in a concentration camp himself.
His defenders argued that he was just a patriot, trying to make the German economy strong. The British judges favored acquittal, while the Soviet judges wanted to convict.
He also gave advice on economics and finance to heads of state of developing countries, in particular the Non-Aligned countries, however, some of his suggestions were opposed, one of which was in the Philippines by the former Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas head Miguel Cuaderno , who firmly rebuffed Schacht, stating that his monetary schemes were hardly appropriate for an economy needing capital investment in basic industry and infrastructure.
Indirectly resulting from his founding of the bank, Schacht was the plaintiff in a foundational case in German law on the "general right of personality".
A magazine published an article criticizing Schacht, containing several incorrect statements. Schacht first requested that the magazine publish a correction, and when the magazine refused, sued the publisher for violation of his personality rights.
The district court found the publisher both civilly and criminally liable; on appeal, the appellate court reversed the criminal conviction, but found that the publisher had violated Schacht's general right of personality.
Schacht wrote 26 books  during his lifetime, of which at least four have been translated into English:.
Hjalmar Schacht has been portrayed by the following actors in film, television and theater productions; . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved May 16, Evans , The Third Reich in Power — Martyr, Thinker, Man of Resistance. Royals and the Reich: Die Befreiung der Sonder- und Sippenhäftlinge in Südtirol.
Online-Edition Mythos Elser Houghton Mifflin, , For and Against Hitler. Christopher Publishing House Boston: Hjalmar Schacht in Perspective.
Penguin Group New York: War and Diplomacy in Eastern Asia reprint ed. Därefter 1 timme extra för att avsluta partiet. Psykologi utgör en stor del av spelprocessen i schack.
Det ursprung som har störst stöd är att schackspelet uppstod i Indien under namnet Chaturanga. I Iran kallas schack chatrang. Man säger därför att schack ursprungligen är ett indo-iranskt spel som spreds via Ryssland till Europa och vidare ut i världen.
Det betyder inte ordagrant " kungen är död ", vilket är en vanlig missuppfattning. Det populära radioprogrammet Fem minuter schack sändes i Sveriges Radio mellan och Även den svensk-brittiska musikalen Chess handlar om schack.
Följande är en lista över VM-matcher i schack. Detta gynnar datorn högst väsentligt. Annars spelar beräkningshastigheten ingen roll.
Och en schackställnings komplexitet kan inte översättas i siffror. Men till synes starkt spelande datorer eg. Datorer tenderar fortfarande att föredra "material framför position".
Dock hittar de nästan aldrig de mest eleganta avslutningarna, till exempel där flera pjäser offras under flera heldrag före matt.
Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent. Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.
A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.
They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.
The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.
This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening.
There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.
Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.
Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.
Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the Boden's Mate or the Lasker—Bauer combination.
Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.
An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside. The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.
Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.
Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.
Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.
The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.
Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.
For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.
Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.
Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance , chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the " King's Game ".
Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick.
But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.
Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.
Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.
Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess' , written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.
This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.
During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.
The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.
By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.
Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.
Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".
Rowling's Harry Potter plays. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.
The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.
It causes enmity and hatred between people. Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions. The creator is known as a chess composer.
Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems. It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn.
The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:. Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.
FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee ,  but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.
Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.
Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.
The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women.
Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.
As of August , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. Top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, Ukraine, and Germany, with , 78, and The country with most grandmasters per capita is Iceland, with 11 GMs and 13 IMs among the population of , International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.
National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.
Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.
Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.
The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in , and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in Chess has a very extensive literature.
In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.
The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.
The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 ,   with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.
Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the knight's tour and the eight queens puzzle. One of the most important mathematical challenges of chess is the development of algorithms that can play chess.
Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.
The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.
In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.
Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.
In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.
The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.
De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.
Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.
When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall. More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.
The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research. Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.
For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.
Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.
Although the link between performance in chess and general intelligence is often assumed, researchers have largely failed to confirm its existence.
However, performance in chess also relies substantially on one's experience playing the game, and the role of experience may overwhelm the role of intelligence.
Chess experts are estimated to have in excess of 10, and possibly as many as , position patterns stored in their memory; long training is necessary to acquire that amount of data.
A study of young chess players in the United Kingdom found that strong players tended to have above-average IQ scores, but, within that group, the correlation between chess skill and IQ was moderately negative, meaning that smarter children tended to achieve a lower level of chess skill.
This result was explained by a negative correlation between intelligence and practice in the elite subsample, and by practice having a higher influence on chess skill.
There are more than two thousand published chess variants,  most of them of relatively recent origin,  including:.
Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include David Pritchard 's encyclopedias,  the website The Chess Variant Pages created by Hans Bodlaender with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from George Jellis to the British Chess Variants Society.
In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.
A two-player strategy board game. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king.
Moves of a rook. Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen. Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook. White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops.
Black is not in check and has no legal move. The result is stalemate. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs. Square names in algebraic chess notation.
After sacrificing a piece to expose Black's king, Botvinnik played Chess in the arts. A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals.
List of chess variants. Chess portal Strategy games portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.
The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 October Consejo Superior de Deportes.
Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 4 October Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 8 March Li's The Genealogy of Chess ".Ein Abzug im Schachspiel ist ein Zug eines Spielsteins, bei dem dieser aus der Wirkungslinie einer langschrittigen Figur Läufer, Turm, Dame tritt, wodurch diese indirekt aktiviert wird und einen Angriff ausführt. Der letzte namhafte Schachmeister, der sich für die Beibehaltung der freien Rochade einsetzte, war Serafino Dubois — Libellenschach des Spiele-Entwicklers Christian Freeling dar. Die berühmteste Legende ist die Weizenkornlegende , die als Hommage an das Schachspiel, als anschauliches mathematisches Lehrbeispiel oder als sozialkritische Parabel verstanden werden kann. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Die Figuren ziehen wie im Schach, mit Ausnahme der Bauern, von denen zwei in die Richtung des einen Gegners ziehen und die anderen beiden in die Richtung des anderen Gegners. Sechs schwarze Bauern erhalten nur sehr schwache Spieler. Dadurch benötigt man immer zwei Möglichkeiten, um einem Schach zu entfliehen, aber auch zwei Möglichkeiten, um mattzusetzen. Unterschieden werden die kurze und die lange Rochade. Um die Erfindung des Spiels ranken sich zahlreiche Legenden , deren berühmteste die Weizenkornlegende ist. Beim Vergabeschach ist Schlagen ebenfalls Pflicht, aber der König wird nicht geschlagen. Es gibt Dummköpfe , die ein Feld weit ziehen, Schlitzohren , die beliebig weit ziehen, und einen Schlaukopf je Seite, der ein Feld weit zieht und dem König entspricht: Wenn rochiert wird, landen die beiden Figuren genau so, wie sie im klassischen Schach nach der Rochade stehen würden. Matteinsetzen bedeutet hierbei, dass eine Figur so eingesetzt nicht gezogen! Da in diesem Fall ein Schach aus zwei Richtungen erfolgt, muss der bedrohte König ziehen.